Madness and the Minotaur
Play the game in a CoCo emulator. Click on the splash screen below to open the console and then press any key.
To access tape functions, enter the QUIET command. Then press one of the following 3 keys:
- W - Return to game
- ! - Save game to tape area below
- ) - Load game from tape area below
The text area below is the virtual cassette tape. Instead of writing to tape, the emulator writes base64 encoded data to this text area.The "!" command will write 2111 bytes to the text box. You must select all the characters (CNTRL-A) and copy them (CNTRL-C). Then store them in a text file for later use. Before the ")" command you must paste the desired saved-data back into the text area.
Follow along with My Game step by step. Open the emulator and save-game viewer and follow along as I win the game. You have my save-files after every major task. You can jump in to my journey at any point.
The Labyrinth of King Minos
"Rumor has it that there are treasures hidden in the vicinity of the Labyrinth. Are these treasures worth risking life or sanity? If your answer to this question is negative or you are plagued with skepticism, it is suggested that you re-evaluate your priorities and establish some healthy materialism."
> From the game manual introduction
Code bugs are always fun to explore. You should visit these:
- Error message with POTION
- Error when KILL ORACLE
- ISHTAR does not clear fog poison
- Should fail if overburdeoned
- Missing word WATER from message
- Shadowed jump
- Invisible Oil hides the URN
- YOUR SIGHT IS DIM never gets printed (Joe Hagan)
You should see the routines that Move each Creature and the routines that Make Each Creature Attack.
Have a look at the Individual User Commands -- especially the Spell Commands.
Check out the routines that run Between Certain Rooms and when you Enter Certain Rooms.
Read through the text messages of the game:
Here is the map of all the passages between all 256 rooms: Dungeon Map
For more information on Madness and the Minotaur check out Sean Murphy's wonderful site:
John Layman has translated the 6809 opcodes to x86 to run on a LINUX, BSD, and OSX. Follow his awesome work:
Text Adventure and Real Time Strategy
Madness and the Minotaur is a text adventure game that includes elements of a D&D game and a non-turn-based action game. You have "hit points" (physical condition) and you will die when they run out. There are creatures that move from room to room once a minute. If you sit still long enough a creature will find you and kill you. Your pack has bulk and weight. The more you carry and the lower your hit-points the harder it is for you to jump.
To win the game you have to learn all 8 spells and drop all 16 treasure objects in the forest (room 202). The spells are sprinkled around the rooms at random. Some objects are "protected" and require you have a set of other objects to release (see below). Some object are "carried" by creatures. Some objects are attached to special room-actions.
Game Room Geometry
There are 256 rooms in the game -- 4 floors of 64 rooms each. Each floor is a square grid of 8x8 rooms. Rooms are numbered from 0 to 255. Room 0 is the upper left of the first floor and room 255 is the lower right of the last floor. Going EAST adds 1 to the room number. WEST subtracts one. NORTH subtracts 8. SOUTH adds 8. UP subtracts 64. DOWN adds 64. If the room number becomes less than 0 or greater than 255 it "wraps around".
There is a table in the game that defines the "natural" passages between rooms. Most of these passages are two way, but some are one way. The map below shows the natural passages as a line between the rooms. If the line touches the room with a "+" then the passage can be entered from the room. If there is no "+" then the passage is one way from the adjoining room. For instance, you can take the passage from room 7 to 6 but not from 6 to 7. This map is NOT randomized between games. The natural passages are the same for all games.
Every room has a single one-sentence description (see the code). There are eight different messages to describe a passage leading from a room in any one direction. The game builds the description of passages by selecting a random description for each open direction. Thus a room is described a little bit differently every time you see it.
The game keeps a list of "blocked" passages. Randomly (on the average of once every 4 minutes) the ground will begin to shake and three passages are blocked somewhere in the dungeon. The game keeps a list of the last 12 rooms it has blocked. It pulls the oldest rooms from this list and unblocks them as it blocks new ones. Thus only 12 can be blocked up by the shaking ground and the dungeon doesn't get clogged up completely over time. You can use the CROM spell to unblock all passages in a room. If you have the POWERRING in your pack you can walk through blocked passages. Otherwise just wait around (with your lamp off to save oil) and the passages will eventually unblock.
The last three rows (40 rooms) of the every floor is the "maze of tunnels stretching in all directions". These behave like normal rooms, but they all share the same room description and they all have full connectivity to their neighboring maze rooms. There is also limited entry and exit to the maze. Note that all the rooms on the 4th floor (except the treasure room) are a "maze of tunnels" even though the first 5 rows are not laid out like the maze.
There are 24 places in the dungeon where you can jump. The map shows these jump locations and where they go. The map also shows landing points for jumps so you can quickly reference back to the starting room. For instance, "j:102" in room 38 means that you can jump into room 38 from room 102.
All jumps check your dexterity ... your physical-condition minus the weight of your pack. Each jump has a dexterity requirement to succeed. If your dexterity is less than this value you fail, and each jump has its own description of what to do for a failure.
You start the game with the maximum physical condition of 255. The maximum for weight is 255. The maximum for bulk is 255.
A failed jump can end in instant "death". Or a failed jump can end in a "fumble" in which case you actually make the jump but you drop the heaviest object you are carrying in the room you jumped from. Or a failed jump can end in a "stumble" where you don't make the jump and you take a specific amount of damage. Here is the jump table:
3BE1: 8F 80 00 97 6D; From 143 "JUMP PIT" to 151. Required=128 or DEATH 3BE6: 97 80 80 8F 6D; From 151 "JUMP PIT" to 143. Required=128 or FUMBLE 3BEB: 10 80 80 11 2C; From 16 "JUMP POOL" to 17. Required=128 or FUMBLE 3BF0: 11 80 80 10 2C; From 17 "JUMP POOL" to 16. Required=128 or FUMBLE 3BF5: 4E 40 80 56 41; From 78 "JUMP CHASM" to 86. Required=64 or FUMBLE 3BFA: 56 40 80 4E 41; From 86 "JUMP CHASM" to 78. Required=64 or FUMBLE 3BFF: 2C 0A 0A B6 6D; From 44 "JUMP PIT" to 182. Required=10 or STUMBLE(10) 3C04: B6 14 14 2C 6D; From 182 "JUMP PIT" to 44. Required=20 or STUMBLE(20) 3C09: A4 A0 00 CA 6D; From 164 "JUMP PIT" to 202. Required=160 or DEATH 3C0E: 85 C0 80 CB 6D; From 133 "JUMP PIT" to 203. Required=192 or FUMBLE 3C13: 90 14 14 85 FF; From 144 "JUMP" to 133. Required=20 or STUMBLE(20) 3C18: CB 80 1E CA 6D; From 203 "JUMP PIT" to 202. Required=128 or STUMBLE(30) 3C1D: D5 46 14 D4 6B; From 213 "JUMP MIST" to 212. Required=70 or STUMBLE(20) 3C22: D4 46 14 D5 6B; From 212 "JUMP MIST" to 213. Required=70 or STUMBLE(20) 3C27: 23 96 28 22 9F; From 35 "JUMP HOLE" to 34. Required=150 or STUMBLE(40) 3C2C: 22 78 14 23 6D; From 34 "JUMP PIT" to 35. Required=120 or STUMBLE(20) 3C31: 80 64 80 40 05; From 128 "JUMP UP" to 64. Required=100 or FUMBLE 3C36: A6 50 80 66 05; From 166 "JUMP UP" to 102. Required=80 or FUMBLE 3C3B: 66 A0 80 26 05; From 102 "JUMP UP" to 38. Required=160 or FUMBLE 3C40: 5C 96 1E 9C 06; From 92 "JUMP DOWN" to 156. Required=150 or STUMBLE(30) 3C45: 46 50 14 8C 06; From 70 "JUMP DOWN" to 140. Required=80 or STUMBLE(20) 3C4A: 5E 5A 0A 9E 06; From 94 "JUMP DOWN" to 158. Required=90 or STUMBLE(10) 3C4F: 40 1E 00 80 6D; From 64 "JUMP PIT" to 128. Required=30 or DEATH 3C54: CA 1E 14 A2 06; From 202 "JUMP DOWN" to 162. Required=30 or STUMBLE(20) ;##CodeBug6 ; The source for this last jump is set by the code at 0CC7. This jump is given to the ; same room where the RoomEnterAction_203 (SMALL PIT IN CORNER OF ROOM). A JUMP DOWN ; (into the pit) lands you in room 39 -- The Temple of Zeus. REA_203 is placed at ; random anywhere on the 4th floor. The code that reads this table (19AC) only finds ; the first entry in this list for a room. If there is a second jump then it will ; never get discovered. If the RAE_203 is placed in a room with an existing jump then ; the jump to the Temple of Zeus doesn't work. 3C59: 10 8C 80 27 06; From 16 "JUMP DOWN" to 39. Required=140 or FUMBLE
For instance, the jump description in room 16 says "J:POOL:17:128F". That means you "JUMP POOL" to get to room 17. The jump requires a dexterity of 128 and if you fail you "fumble" an object. All of these jumps except the last are NOT randomized. They are same every game. The last jump in the table is dynamically assigned to the room with the "SMALL PIT IN THE CORNER". If this jump is placed in a room that already has a jump then it is never seen.
There are several passages that have action triggers associated with them. You can see these triggers as letters on the passage lines between the rooms. The same triggers are used for multiple passages. Like the passage configurations and the jumps, these triggers are NOT randomized. They are the same for every game:
;##BetweenRoomA ; If phys minus weight is less than random 64-191 then a climb-up fails. ;##BetweenRoomB ; Most of time this moves us to room 10 ... the start room. But there is a 20% chance that ; it moves us to a random room 0-F. Either way we tell the game loop to skip moving us ;##BetweenRoomC ; If phys minus weight is less than 192 then a climb-up fails. ;##BetweenRoomD ; If phys minus weight is less than 64 then a climb-up fails. ;##BetweenRoomE ; If phys minus weight is less than 128 then a climb-up fails. ;##BetweenRoomF ; If the lamp is in our pack this moves us to a totally random room. ;##BetweenRoomG ; There is a 50/50 chance of moving to a random room in the first half of the last floor. ;##BetweenRoomH ; There is a 21/32 chance of going to a random room in the maze on a random floor. We flag the main ; routine to skip movement. ;##BetweenRoomI ; There is a 244 in 255 chance of moving to a random room in the maze on a random floor. ; We flag the main routine to skip movement.
I believe the designers had intended for these to be randomizable. The data table is stored in the area that is saved to tape along with the other randomizable things. Also note that action A is applied to the EAST/WEST passage between room 74 and 75. But action A specifically checks to see that it is used in an up/down passage or nothing happens. Perhaps these were randomized once and then "locked down" in the code.
There are 36 rooms that are given random "enter actions" at the start of the game. There are only 28 different actions - some are used multiple times. The first 30 action are placed at random. The "room with the music" is also placed at random. The other 5 are fixed.
; The first 30 entering-room-actions are placed using this table. The first two ; bytes are the lower and upper bounds of room numbers (inclusive) it can appear. ; The third byte is ANDed with the room number. ; The DF limits the room to the 1st half of the floor (away from the maze). ; ; Room Mask Action 1DE9: 00 7F FF ; 0 - 127 & FF _a 1DEC: 00 7F FF ; 0 - 127 & FF _b 1DEF: 00 7F FF ; 0 - 127 & FF _c 1DF2: C0 FF FF ; 192 - 255 & FF _d 1DF5: C0 FF FF ; 192 - 255 & FF _e 1DF8: 40 7F FF ; 64 - 127 & FF _f1 1DFB: 40 7F DF ; 64 - 127 & DF _g (not maze) 1DFE: 40 7F DF ; 64 - 127 & DF _h (not maze) 1E01: E0 FF DF ; 224 - 255 & DF _i (not maze) 1E04: C0 DF DF ; 192 - 223 & DF _j (not maze) 1E07: A0 BF DF ; 160 - 191 & DF _k (not maze) 1E0A: 80 9F DF ; 128 - 159 & DF _l (not maze) 1E0D: 60 7F DF ; 96 - 127 & DF _m (not maze) 1E10: 40 5F DF ; 64 - 95 & DF _n (not maze) 1E13: 20 3F DF ; 32 - 63 & DF _o (not maze) 1E16: 00 1F DF ; 0 - 31 & DF _p (not maze) 1E19: 00 FF DF ; 0 - 255 & DF _q1 (not maze) 1E1C: 00 7F FF ; 0 - 127 & FF _r 1E1F: 00 FF FF ; 0 - 255 & FF _q2 1E22: 00 FF FF ; 0 - 255 & FF _q3 1E25: 40 BF DF ; 64 - 191 & DF _s (not maze) 1E28: 80 FF FF ; 128 - 255 & FF _t 1E2B: 80 FF FF ; 128 - 255 & FF _q4 1E2E: 00 3F DF ; 0 - 63 & DF _u (not maze) 1E31: 40 FF FF ; 64 - 255 & FF _v 1E34: 80 BF FF ; 128 - 191 & FF _f2 1E37: C0 FF FF ; 192 - 255 & FF _32a 1E3A: 40 7F FF ; 64 - 127 & FF _x1 1E3D: 80 BF FF ; 128 - 191 & FF _x2 1E40: C0 FF FF ; 192 - 255 & FF _203a (with jump to room 39) ; This room could be placed with room 203b. That would mean that ; there are 2 pits in the same room. ; ; _213 ; _32b ; _33 ; _203b ; _z (music room that sprite can't go in) Random 16 - 39 ; _232 The actions themselves are described below: ; _a Cave in to next floor (32 damage) if pack heavier than 192. If so move a and b to random rooms. ; _b Cave in to next floor (32 damage) if pack heavier than 128. If so move a and b to random rooms. ; _c Cave in to next floor (32 damage) if pack heavier than 95. If so move a and b to random rooms. ; _d If we have VETAR make the pile-of-rocks appear in this room (it stays here). ; _e Play sound effect (same as bb). If we play the flute and have the parchment then the LEDGE appears here. ; _f Powerful gust blows lamp out of grasp. ; No lamp in pack ... do nothing. Otherwise: ; 1/2 the time do nothing. The other half: ; - Take 30 from physical condition ; - Move the lamp to a neighboring room ; - Spill 256 seconds of oil from the lamp ; - Turn the lamp off ; - Enable VETAR until next move ; - 1/4th of the time move the handler to a room on level 0,1, or 2 ; _g Hydra is here. If it is free it pushes us back to last room. ; _h If we know VETAR or have the SCEPTER, nothing happens. Otherwise we do command RUN. ; _i Do nothing if we have VETAR. If random number > phys condition or 1/2 the time we RUN and take 5 damage. ; _j Do nothing if we have MITRA. If random number > phys condition or 1/2 the time we RUN and take 5 damage. ; _k Do nothing if we have OKKAN. If random number > phys condition or 1/2 the time we RUN and take 5 damage. ; _l Do nothing if we have AKHIROM. If random number > phys condition or 1/2 the time we RUN and take 5 damage. ; _m Do nothing if we have NERGAL. If random number > phys condition or 1/2 the time we RUN and take 5 damage. ; _n Do nothing if we have BELROG. If random number > phys condition or 1/2 the time we RUN and take 5 damage. ; _o Do nothing if we have CROM. If random number > phys condition or 1/2 the time we RUN and take 5 damage. ; _p Do nothing if we have ISHTAR. If random number > phys condition or 1/2 the time we RUN and take 5 damage. ; _q Start the poison clock (we can't stay here long). 1/3 of the time we give the clock an extra tick. ; _r When we enter this room 3 times the treasure is released. ; _s If we have the lamp and it is off then the room drops its treasure. ; If the lamp is on we see the walls are a strange color. ; _t If we are holding the packrat's trigger treasure (randomized at start) then the ; packrat drops his treasure. If the packrat holds his own trigger then he ; drops it immediately. ; _u If we can see you instantly get the treasure. ; _v Print POOL OF OIL if the pool has oil in it. ; There are a limited number of refills (number chosen at init) and ; the oil does not appear until we know ISHTAR. ; _x Add 40 to health and move us a short distance away. 10 minutes must pass before again. ; _z Room with music (init to room 16 to 39). The sprite can't move objects here. ; _32 If we can't see we take 30 damage. ; _33 If we can see you instantly get the treasure. ; _203 Print SMALL PIT IN CORNER OF ROOM. ; _213 Print LAYER OF MIST EAST WALL. ; _232 If we came south to this room and we are carying the pendant then move the ; pendant to a random room and move us to (or near) the start.
There are 40 objects in the game. 16 of those are treasures. 8 objects are "protected", which requires you to have a combination of other objects in your pack in order to pick them up. Once you have released a protected object it remains unprotected the rest of the game. The 6 creatures are also "protected". You have to have the combination to kill them.
Every object has a weight and every object has a bulk. In order to pick up an object your combined pack weight (including the new object) must be less than your physical condition. The new combined bulk must be less than your physical condition.
Objects are randomly placed using a combination of random ranges, masks, and a table of target rooms. Most objects are placed outside the maze. The lamp is placed near the starting point so you don't have to search far for it. Objects that are marked PROTECTED are described shortly.
; This script controls how objects are placed and how the flags are initialized. ; For range placment the room is ((u-l)&mask)+lower. Table for table placement ; is above. Protection does OR #$10. Invisible object does OR #$01. ; Weights and Bulk values are copied from the table at 354A. ; weight Bulk 20D5: 00 00 3F 1F ; 07 07 FOOD Random range 0 to 63 mask=1F(1st 4 rows 1st floor) 20D9: 00 00 3F 1F ; 07 07 BOTTLE Random range 0 to 63 mask=1F(1st 4 rows 1st floor) 20DD: 00 00 3F 1F ; 28 14 DAGGER Random range 0 to 63 mask=1F(1st 4 rows 1st floor) 20E1: 00 80 BF 1F ; 3C 3C MACE Random range 128 to 191 mask=1F(1st 4 rows 1st floor) 20E5: 00 80 BF 1F ; 3C 3C AX Random range 128 to 191 mask=1F(1st 4 rows 1st floor) 20E9: 80 ; 46 28 SWORD Random location from table AND PROTECTED 20EA: 03 00 3F DF ; 3C 32 SHIELD Random range 0 to 63 mask=DF(1st 4 rows any floor) AND PROTECTED 20EE: 00 40 7F 1F ; 1E 14 FLUTE Random range 64 to 127 mask=1F(1st 4 rows 1st floor) 20F2: 00 80 BF 1F ; 32 1E MUSHROOM Random range 128 to 191 mask=1F(1st 4 rows 1st floor) 20F6: 00 80 BF 1F ; 1E 28 PENDANT Random range 128 to 191 mask=1F(1st 4 rows 1st floor) 20FA: 00 C0 FF FF ; 32 41 SCEPTER Random range 192 to 255 mask=FF(anywhere) 20FE: 00 00 0C 0B ; 06 06 LAMP Random range 0 to 12 mask=0B(early 1st level) 2102: 00 80 BF 1F ; 14 00 BASKET Random range 128 to 191 mask=1F(1st 4 rows 1st floor) 2106: 00 C0 FF FF ; 23 28 PARCHMENT Random range 192 to 255 mask=FF(anywhere) 210A: 80 ; 2D 32 VIAL Random location from table AND PROTECTED 210B: 00 40 7F 1F ; 32 6E URN Random range 64 to 127 mask=1F(1st 4 rows 1st floor) 210F: 00 C0 FF FF ; 28 28 TALISMAN Random range 192 to 255 mask=FF(anywhere) 2113: 01 ; 28 32 SCROLL Carried object 2114: 00 C0 FF FF ; 28 46 GOBLET Random range 192 to 255 mask=FF(anywhere) 2118: 03 40 7F DF ; 28 28 SKULL Random range 64 to 127 mask=DF(1st 4 rows any floor) AND PROTECTED 211C: 01 ; 1E 32 SCARAB Carried object 211D: 01 ; 1E 46 JEWELBOX Carried object 211E: 01 ; 32 55 TABLET Carried object 211F: 00 C0 FF DF ; 28 3C ROPE Random range 192 to 255 mask=DF(1st 4 rows any floor) 2123: 00 00 7F DF ; SPRITE Random range 0 to 127 mask=DF(1st 4 rows any floor) 2127: 00 80 BF 1F ; TROGLODYTE Random range 128 to 191 mask=1F(1st 4 rows 1st floor) 212B: 00 40 BF DF ; SCORPION Random range 64 to 191 mask=DF(1st 4 rows any floor) 212F: 00 40 7F 1F ; NYMPH Random range 64 to 127 mask=1F(1st 4 rows 1st floor) 2133: 00 80 BF 1F ; SATYR Random range 128 to 191 mask=1F(1st 4 rows 1st floor) 2137: 00 80 BF 1F ; MINOTAUR Random range 128 to 191 mask=1F(1st 4 rows 1st floor) 213B: 00 00 7F DF ; ORACLE Random range 0 to 127 mask=DF(1st 4 rows any floor) 213F: 01 ; 64 1E GOLD (treasure) Carried object 2140: 01 ; 46 32 SILVER (treasure) Carried object 2141: 01 ; 28 32 DIAMOND (treasure) Carried object 2142: 03 00 FF FF ; 46 50 SPELLBOOK (treasure) Random range 0 to 255 mask=FF(anywhere) AND PROTECTED 2146: 01 ; 28 3C RUBY (treasure) Carried object 2147: 01 ; 5A 50 FLEECE (treasure) Carried object 2148: 01 ; 32 37 TIARA (treasure) Carried object 2149: 01 ; 3C 28 POWDER (treasure) Carried object 214A: 01 ; 5A 2D AMULET (treasure) Carried object 214B: 01 ; 46 46 POTION (treasure) Carried object 214C: 03 80 BF DF ; 5A 5A POWERRING (treasure) Random range 128 to 191 mask=DF(1st 4 rows any floor) AND PROTECTED 2150: 80 ; 5A 5A LIGHTRING (treasure) Random location from table AND PROTECTED 2151: 80 ; 5A 5A TRUTHRING (treasure) Random location from table AND PROTECTED 2152: 01 ; 50 32 CROWN (treasure) Carried object 2153: 01 ; 28 28 OPAL (treasure) Carried object 2154: 01 ; 3C 3C SAPPHIRE (treasure) Carried object ; 16 different rooms that protected objects may be placed in. It is likely that ; multiple protected objects will be dropped in the same room. 20C5: 64 ; 100 20C6: 96 ; 150 20C7: 5A ; 90 20C8: 4D ; 77 20C9: A2 ; 162 20CA: 10 ; 16 20CB: 73 ; 115 20CC: 90 ; 144 20CD: 38 ; 56 20CE: 19 ; 25 20CF: 2C ; 44 20D0: 87 ; 135 20D1: DE ; 222 20D2: 4F ; 79 20D3: 85 ; 133 20D4: 9E ; 158
Some of the objects have special abilities:
LAMP - The first 40 rooms of level one and the treasure room (202) are naturally lit. The rest of the rooms need lamp light for you to see. You can LAMP ON and LAMP OFF to turn the lamp on and off.
SCARAB - The AKHIROM spell makes you invulnerable for 3 minutes IF you have the scarab in your pack. Once you are invulnerable you will see the scarab glowing if you "LOOK SCARAB". At the end of three minutes the scarab moves to a random room.
FOOD - The foods adds 30 to your physical condition (no more than 95). Then the food moves to a random room to be eaten again. You can EAT FOOD.
POWDER - If you EAT POWDER then the URN and BOTTLE (fillable things) come to your current room and the POWDER moves to a random room.
MUSHROOM - Most of the time eating the mushroom adds 60 to your physical condition. Then the mushroom moves to a random room. But be careful: the mushroom has a 1/32 chance of killing you instantly. Save your game before you eat it. You can EAT MUSHROOM.
BOTTLE - The bottle can be filled up with water in several rooms. Drinking the water from the bottle heals your physical condition by 32 points and starts a 16 minute timer. You can only heal up by drinking water once every 16 minutes. You can DRINK WATER. The bottle starts full of water.
You can also attempt to DRINK SPRITE - a pun on the soda drink. You'll get a "YOU MUST BE JOKING" message.
URN - The urn holds oil to refill the lamp. There is a pool of oil that moves every time you fill from it. You can fill the lamp directly from the pool of oil or you can fill the urn from the pool. In fact, the urn will hold four fills. The number of refills in the pool of oil is randomized at the start of the game from 4 to 7. You can only see the pool of oil when you know ISHTAR. You can FILL URN or FILL LAMP. The URN starts with 4 refills of oils.
FLUTE and PARCHMENT - There is a room in the dungeon (placed at random) that plays music when you enter it. If you PLAY FLUTE and have the parchment in your pack a ledge will appear. You climb the ledge with the rope to get the treasure. You can PLAY FLUTE.
ROPE - You need the rope to climb the ledge for its treasure. You also need the rope to tie up the Hydra before stabbing it. You can TIE HYDRA and CLIMB LEDGE.
TABLET - If you in room 19 (with the ancient carvings on the wall) you can LOOK TABLET to bring the Oracle to the room. The tablet then moves to a random room.
POWERRING - If you have the tablet you can walk through blocked passages. You can also OPEN CRYPT in the "crypt of the ancient king" with the powering. Otherwise your physical condition must be greater than 250 to open it.
SCEPTER - In the room with action "_h" you have to know VETRA or have the SCEPTER or you get pushed out.
POTION - If you DRINK POTION you heal by adding 200 to your physical condition and the potion moves to a random room. There is also a 7/8 chance of curing the scorpion sting if you have been stung. If fact, this is the only way to cure the scorpion sting so keep it on you until you have killed the scorpion.
There is a bug in the code for "DRINK POTION". If you enter the command but don't have potion you'll see "THE BOTTLE IS EMPTY" - even if you don't have the potion or the bottle.
PENDANT - If you are carrying the PENDANT and enter room 232 from the south then you are moved to a random room near the start (room 10) and the PENDANT drops in a random room.
SCROLL - If you have the scroll you can OPEN SCROLL anywhere on the 3rd or 4th floor to bring the Troglodyte to you.
JEWLBOX - If you open the JEWLBOX in room 158 (the Minotaur's lair) the Minotaur will appear in the room.
DRAPES - If you OPEN DRAPES in room 9 there is a 1 in 4 chance of opening the passage to the south. You only get one chance at this.
Object marked with a "*" in the table above are protected. You must have a specific set of objects in your pack in order to GET these objects. You can have other objects in your pack too, but you must have all of the combo objects. Once you have freed a protected object it remains free. You can DROP and GET it back without the specific combo on objects in your pack.
There is potential here for a deadlock. Protected object A could require you to have object B but B might be protected and require you have object A. The developers went to great lengths to keep this from happening. Instead of making the trigger-lists at random, they created a handful of possible lists for each object. At startup the game picks a random list from the possible lists for each protected object.
The lists were carefully constructed to avoid a deadlock. Here are the possible protected-object requirements for each object:
; There are 14 objects in the game that require us to have a combination ; of objects to kill/get. This table lists a number of configurations ; for each of these objects. On initialization, a random list is chosen ; from the possibile lists for each object. ; ; Note that none of these are treasures, so the game can't be unwinnable because a ; creature carries the object needed to kill it. ; ; These lists are carefully constructed so that we can never have an unwinnable ; game because two objects require one another to get. 1D4D: 1A ; TROGLODYTE 1D4E: 45 0B 38 80 ; AX, SCEPTER, MITRA 1D52: 23 7D 80 ; SPELLBOOK, CROM 1D55: 43 07 3B FF ; DAGGER, SHIELD, NERGAL 1D59: 1D ; SATYR 1D5A: 46 3B 80 ; SWORD, NERGAL 1D5D: 44 2B 38 80 ; MACE, LIGHTRING, MITRA 1D61: 23 77 FF ; SPELLBOOK, VETAR 1D64: 1E ; MINOTAUR 1D65: 46 07 2A 80 ; SWORD, SHIELD, POWERRING 1D69: 44 0F 0B 38 80 ; MACE, VIAL, SCEPTER, MITRA 1D6E: 45 3B FF ; AX, NERGAL 1D71: 1B ; SCORPION 1D72: 48 3B 80 ; FLUTE, NERGAL 1D75: 14 3D 80 ; SKULL, CROM 1D78: 51 2A FF ; TALISMAN, POWERRING 1D7B: 1C ; NYMPH 1D7C: 49 2C 80 ; MUSHROOM, TRUTHRING 1D7F: 41 0A 80 ; FOOD, PENDANT 1D82: 48 39 FF ; FLUTE, OKKAN 1D85: 19 ; SPRITE 1D86: 54 2A 80 ; SKULL, POWERRING 1D89: 41 3B 80 ; FOOD, NERGAL 1D8C: 43 3A FF ; DAGGER, AKHIROM ; 1D8F: 06 ; SWORD 1D90: 18 80 ; ROPE 1D92: 38 80 ; MITRA 1D94: 0E FF ; PARCHMENT 1D96: 0F ; VIAL 1D97: 09 77 80 ; MUSHROOM, VETAR 1D9A: 0E 38 80 ; PARCHMENT, MITRA 1D9D: 11 38 FF ; TALISMAN, MITRA 1DA0: 07 ; SHIELD 1DA1: 06 80 ; SWORD 1DA3: 04 80 ; MACE 1DA5: 03 FF ; DAGGER 1DA7: 14 ; SKULL 1DA8: 11 0A 80 ; TALISMAN, PENDANT 1DAB: 39 80 ; OKKAN 1DAD: 0B FF ; SCEPTER 1DAF: 2A ; POWERRING 1DB0: 7C 80 ; BELROG 1DB2: 07 0B 0E 79 80 ; SHIELD, SCEPTER, PARCHMENT, OKKAN 1DB7: 07 04 14 78 80 ; SHIELD, MACE, SKULL, MITRA 1DBC: 07 06 7A FF ; SHIELD, SWORD, AKHIROM 1DC0: 2B ; LIGHTRING 1DC1: 2A 7D 11 80 ; POWERRING, CROM, TALISMAN 1DC5: 2A 05 39 80 ; POWERRING, AX, OKKAN 1DC9: 2A 18 7B FF ; POWERRING, ROPE, NERGAL 1DCD: 2C ; TRUTHRING 1DCE: 2B 7D 0D 80 ; LIGHTRING, CROM, BASKET 1DD2: 2B 05 39 80 ; LIGHTRING, AX, OKKAN 1DD6: 2B 08 7A FF ; LIGHTRING, FLUTE, AKHIROM 1DDA: 23 ; SPELLBOOK 1DDB: 14 08 80 ; SKULL, FLUTE 1DDE: 0A 7D 80 ; PENDANT, CROM 1DE1: 09 13 7C 80 ; MUSHROOM, GOBLET, BELROG 1DE5: 2A 7B FF ; POWERRING, NERGAL 1DE8: FF
For instance, to get the POWERRING you might only need to have learned BELROG. Or you might need the SHIELD, SWORD, and AKHIROM. The Oracle will tell you (one object at a time) the required objects for each protected item except the SPELLBOOK. You get the combination for the SPELLBOOK by "LOOK POOL" in room 0.
The "AIR IS CRACKLING WITH ENCHANTMENT" if you enter a room with a spell (or multiple spells). If you have the right item in your backpack you will automatically learn the spell. You have to learn the spells in order. You have to have the MUSHROOM and the FOOD to learn VETAR. You have to know VETAR and have the PARCHMENT to learn MITRA. The following table shows what you have to have to learn a spell and the rooms that the spells may appear in (random pick between the first and second room number inclusively).
3BC1: 09 01 00 00 ; VETRA: MUSHROOM and FOOD 3BC5: 0E 37 00 00 ; MITRA: PARCHMENT and VETRA 3BC9: 11 38 00 00 ; OKKAN: TALISMAN and MITRA 3BCD: 18 39 00 00 ; AKHIROM: ROPE and OKKAN 3BD1: 0B 3A 00 00 ; NERGAL: SCEPTER and AKHIROM 3BD5: 0F 3B 00 00 ; BELROG: VIAL and NERGAL 3BD9: 0A 3C 00 00 ; CROM: PENDANT and BELROG 3BDD: 23 3D 00 00 ; ISHTAR: SPELLBOOK and CROM ; This table describes where a spell can be placed at random. The last 24 ; rooms on floors 1-3 and all of 4th floor is the maze (except for exit ; room on 4th floor). The given spell must be placed between the start and ; stop values (inclusive). 1D3D: 00 27 ; VETRA 0 - 39 1st floor (except last 24 rooms ... the maze) 1D3F: 40 67 ; MITRA 64 - 103 2nd floor (except last 24 rooms ... the maze) 1D41: 40 67 ; OKKAN 64 - 103 2nd floor (except last 24 rooms ... the maze) 1D43: 40 67 ; AKHIROM 64 - 103 2nd floor (except last 24 rooms ... the maze) 1D45: 80 A7 ; NERGAL 128 - 167 3rd floor (except last 24 rooms ... the maze) 1D47: 80 A7 ; BELROG 128 - 167 3rd floor (except last 24 rooms ... the maze) 1D49: 80 FF ; CROM 128 - 255 anywhere on 3rd or 4th floor 1D4B: 80 FF ; ISHTAR 128 - 255 anywhere on 3rd or 4th floor
Using a spell costs hit points (physical condition). The more powerful the spell, the more it costs. Here are the details of what they cost and what they do:
;##CommandVETAR ; Take 10 damage. GET LAMP immediately after it has been blown away. ; Note the SCROLL can be used to retrieve the lamp on the 4th floor. ;##CommandMITRA ; Take 12 damnage. Remove scorpion sting. ;##CommandOKKAN ; Take 14 damage. Get treasure from "pile of rocks" if it is here. ;##CommandAKHIROM ; Take 16 damage. If SCARAB is in pack, make us invulnerable for 3 minutes. At the ; end of that if the scarab is in the pack, move it to a random room. So be sure ; and drop the scarab while you are invulnerable or you'll have to look for it ; to do it again. Also kill the HYDRA if it is in the room (no SCARAB required). ;##CommandNERGAL ; Take 18 damage. Allows us to stay in poison room. ;##CommandBELROG ; Take 20 damage. Make JUMP from this room without failing. ;##CommandCROM ; Take 22 damage. Ublocks all passages. ;##CommandISHTAR ; Take 24 damage. Move to "exit" point where we drop treasure. This has a limited ; number of uses (randomized at start to 1-4) so use it wisely.
There are several places in the dungeon where the lamp gets blown out of your hands. You can use VETAR on your next turn to get it back. If you take a step, VETAR won't work.
ISHTAR moves you to the exit room. At the beginning of the game the number of uses is randomized from 1 to 4. The room with the oil in it (to refill the URN or LAMP) will not appear until you know ISHTAR.
There are six "real" creatures in the game that move around and attack you. The Oracle moves like a creature but gives you advice if you ASK ORACLE. Once the oracle gives advice it moves to a random room in the dungeon and continues walking around. The ORACLE starts in a random room on the 1st two floors. Once a minute the oracle picks a random direction from its current room and moves to the target room. It is not stopped by blocked passages or even missing passages.
There is an interesting bug in the code involving the Oracle. If you KILL ORACLE you will get the message THE URN IS FILLED WITH OIL, which doesn't make much sense. Then the oracle moves to a random room.
The Hydra is placed in a random room and caries a treasure. When you try to enter the room with the Hydra it will push you back. As soon as it pushes you back you can TIE HYDRA if you have the rope. This binds the Hydra allowing you to enter the room with it. Then you STAB HYDRA to kill it. If you have the SWORD in your pack your physical condition must be at least 200 to kill it. If instead you have the DAGGER, your physical condition must be at least 240. All other stabs miss. The AKHIROM spell (makes you invulnerable) will also kill the Hydra no matter what your condition. When the Hydra dies it drops its treasure and the rope.
At the beginning of the game the packrat is given a random treasure and notes a random treasure to watch for. It is placed in a random room. If you enter the room carrying the trigger treasure then the packrat will drop its own treasure for you. If you don't have the trigger then the rat runs into hiding. And if the rat happens to be carrying its own trigger? The designers coded for that. If the rat is carrying its own trigger it immediately drops the treasure for you.
The six "real" creatures all move once a minute. Once they are in the room with you they go into a second-by-second attack phase described below. If you are still alive when the minute tick comes along, the creature moves on.
To kill a creature you use the KILL command: KILL MINOTAR for example. The creatures have combinations-of-objects you must possess just like the protected objects in order for the KILL to take them down. If you don't have the right combination you miss and take 50 damage to your physical condition.
Like the protected objects the creatures have "possible" lists that are chosen at random at the start of the game. The oracle will tell you what the combinations are.
The SPRITE starts in a random room on the 1st two floors (not the maze). Once a minute the SPRITE moves in a random direction. It may only move in a valid, unblocked direction. It may not move to the 4th floor except for the treasure room.
When the SPRITE enters a room it moves all objects on the floor to a random room anywhere in the dungeon. To protected dropped objects there are some rooms the SPRITE may not go. The SPRITE may not move to the room with the music on the 1st floor (enter-action "_z").
The SPRITE may not move to the room with the VIAL in it (whether the vial is protected or free). Thus you can drop the vial anywhere you want to protect them from the SPRITE.
The SPRITE does not attack.
In order to KILL SPRITE, you must have one of the following combinations of objects (the list is chosen at random at the start of the game):
1D86: 54 2A 80 ; SKULL, POWERRING 1D89: 41 3B 80 ; FOOD, NERGAL 1D8C: 43 3A FF ; DAGGER, AKHIROM
The TROGLODYTE starts in a random room on the 3rd floor (not the maze). Once a minute the TROGLODYTE moves in a random direction. It may only move in a valid, unblocked direction. It may not move to the 4th floor.
If the TROGLODYTE is in the room with you it attacks on a twelve second cycle. The 1st second it has a random chance of hitting with 60 damage to your physical condition. The chance depends on your room number. In low room numbers (like on the 1st floor) the chance of hitting is low. Try to take it on there!
1D4E: 45 0B 38 80 ; AX, SCEPTER, MITRA 1D52: 23 7D 80 ; SPELLBOOK, CROM 1D55: 43 07 3B FF ; DAGGER, SHIELD, NERGAL
The SCORPION starts in a random room on the 2nd or 3rd floor (not the maze). Once a minute the SCORPTION moves in a random direction. It does not check for passages or blocks. It may move to any floor.
If the SCORPION is in a room with attacks on a random second. The attack does one of two things. Half the time it does nothing and the SCORPION vanishes for 16 seconds. Other half of the time it increases the sting count. Once stung, you take damage once a minute from the accumulated stings at a rate of 5 times number-of-stings to your physical condition. The only cure for the SCORPION sting is the POTION, and even it doesn't work 1/8th of the time. If it doesn't work you have to find the POTION and try again before you die.
In order to KILL SCORPION, you must have one of the following combination of objects (the list is chosen at random at the start of the game):
1D72: 48 3B 80 ; FLUTE, NERGAL 1D75: 14 3D 80 ; SKULL, CROM 1D78: 51 2A FF ; TALISMAN, POWERRING
The NYMPH starts in a random room on the 2nd floor (not the maze). Once a minute the NYMPH moves in a random direction. It may only move in a valid, unblocked direction. It may move to any floor.
The NYMPH does not attack.
In order to KILL NYMPH, you must have one of the following combination of objects (the list is chosen at random at the start of the game):
1D7C: 49 2C 80 ; MUSHROOM, TRUTHRING 1D7F: 41 0A 80 ; FOOD, PENDANT 1D82: 48 39 FF ; FLUTE, OKKAN
The SATYR starts in a random room on the 3rd floor (not the maze). Once a minute the SATYR moves in a random direction. It may only move in a valid, unblocked direction. It may not move to the 1st floor.
If the SATYR is in the room with you it attacks on a 15 second cycle. On the 1st second it attacks with 30 damage to your physical condition.
In order to KILL SATYR, you must have one of the following combination of objects (the list is chosen at random at the start of the game):
1D5A: 46 3B 80 ; SWORD, NERGAL 1D5D: 44 2B 38 80 ; MACE, LIGHTRING, MITRA 1D61: 23 77 FF ; SPELLBOOK, VETAR
The MINOTAUR starts in a random room on the 3rd floor (not the maze). Once a minute the MINOTAUR moves in a random direction. It may only move in a valid, unblocked direction. It may not move to the 1st floor.
If the MINOTAUR is in the room with you it attacks on a ten second cycle. The 1st second it prints "THE MINOTAUR IS HERE". On the 10th second it hits with 0 to 70 points of damage to your physical condition.
In order to KILL MINOTAUR you must have one of the following combinations of objects (the list is chosen at random at the start of the game):
1D65: 46 07 2A 80 ; SWORD, SHIELD, POWERRING 1D69: 44 0F 0B 38 80 ; MACE, VIAL, SCEPTER, MITRA 1D6E: 45 3B FF ; AX, NERGAL
EAT FOOD adds 30. Food moves to random room.
EAT MUSHROOM adds 60. (1 in 32 chance of killing you.) Mushroom moves to random room.
DRINK POTION adds 200. Potion moves to random room.
DRINK WATER adds 32 (must wait 16 minutes before drinking again).
Entering room with aura adds 40 (must wait 10 minutes before it will heal again). You are moved to a nearby room.
There are 16 treasure objects you must get to the ground in room 202: GOLD, SILVER, DIAMNOD, SPELLBOOK, RUBY, FLEECE, TIARA, POWDER, AMULET, POTION, POWERRING, LIGHTRIGHT, TRUTHRING, CROWN, OPAL, and SAPPHIRE. These are the last 16 objects in the object table above.
Four of these treasures are "protected", and you'll see them as you walk around the dungeon. The other 12 are "carried" and will be assigned randomly to the following 17 "containers". There are 4 other carried objects too that are not treasures: SCROLL, SCARAB, JEWELBOX, and TABLET. Thus 16 of the 17 containers described next will have an object, but remember not all of them are treasures.
Five of the six moving creatures are given objects. You will have to KILL them: SPRITE, TROGLODYTE, SCORPION, NYMPH, SATYR, and MINOTAUR. One of these creatures is chosen to be "empty" when the carried objects are passed out. But it is never the MINOTAUR. Killing the MINOTAUR will always produce a reward, though it may not be a treasure.
The "EnterRoomAction_t" is the packrat. It is placed at random on the last 2 floors. You must be carrying the object it wants to see. Then it will drop its own object.
The "EnterRoomAction_g" is the HYDRA. It is placed at random outside the maze on the 2nd floor. The HYDRA holds an object. When it pushes you back you must immediately "TIE HYDRA" with the rope in your pack. Then you can enter the room with it and STAB HYDRA with the sword or dagger in your pack. Or you can kill it with the AKHIROM spell (you must have the SCARAB in your pack).
The "EnterRoomAction_203a" is a "SMALL PIT IN THE CORNER OF THE ROOM". This room is placed at random anywhere on the last floor. If you LOOK PIT you will get the object. You may have to look several times as there is a 50/50 chance of seeing it each time.
The "EnterRoomAction_e" is a room with music playing. It is placed at random anywhere on the last floor. If you have the PARCHMENT in your pack and PLAY FLUTE then a ledge will appear. If you have the rope in your pack you can CLIMB LEDGE to get the object.
The "EnterRoomAction_d" is a "PILE OF ROCKS". It is placed at random anywhere on the last floor. You will only see the rocks once you have learned the VETAR spell. Then the OKKAN spell will get the treasure from the rocks.
The "EnterRoomAction_33" is in room 33. Walk in with the lamp on and get the object.
The "EnterRoomAction_u" has a free object. Walk in with the lamp on and get the object. This action is placed outside the maze on the first floor.
The "EnterRoomAction_s" is the room with the eerie glow and strange color walls. It is placed at random outside the maze on the second floor. If you LAMP OFF in this room you'll get the object.
The "EnterRoomAction_r" has an object. It is placed at random on the first two floors. The object is "free", but you have to enter the room three times for it to be released. There is no way to know when you have entered this room. You just have to drift around until you enter it 3 times.
There is a crypt in room 67. If you OPEN CRYPT in this room then the object will fall out. Your physical condition minus your pack-weight must be 250 or better. You'll probably have to drop everything before you can open the crypt.
There is a crypt in room 102. If you OPEN CRYPT in this room then the object will fall out. If you have the POWERRING you will automatically open it. Otherwise your physical condition minus your pack-bulk must be 250 or better.
Thanks to Joe Hagan for pointing out some mistakes in the original disassembly (now corrected here and in the code). The original comments at 09C5 said the Sprite can't move to the treasure room, but it can. The original comments at 1125 said that OPEN SCROLL would bring the LAMP to us on the 4th floor. Actually it brings the Troglodyte to us on floors 3 and 4. And the original comments misinterpreted the VETAR flag. They said the flag temporarily disables VETAR. Actually it temporarily enables it.
Joe fixed a couple of typos here and in the Frogger dig.
Joe found a code bug in Madness at 0D51. The message "YOUR SIGHT IS DIM" is stored as a packed string. But the code to print it calls "PrintMess" instead of "PrintPacked". The message never appears on the screen. Joe fixed the code and verified it in the emulator.
Thanks again, Joe.
The Save-Game Viewer
The map and info at the end of this write-up was created by my save-game viewer. Download the code JAR from the "Tools" page on my site to your machine and play the game online using the signed-version of the online Mocha emulator. The signed version will allow you to save your game to your local machine.
In the emulator's "SETUP" click on "MOUNT LOCAL". When you save your game you will be prompted for a local CAS file. Remember to click on MOUNT LOCAL every time you want a new save file. Otherwise your save will be appended to the end of the first file.
To run the save-game viewer, enter the following command:
java -classpath TOOLS.JAR ca.madness.SaveGameViewer NAME.CAS Where "NAME.CAS" is the name of your saved game.
ZCode Translation (for iPod)
I started working on translating the original source into ZCode for play with Frotz. Frotz is an interpreter for Infocom games and other Z-machine games. It compiles for many platforms including Windows and the iPod. You can download Frotz from the apple app-store for free and then upload "Madness.z5" to your iPod and play madness on the go.
Here is the ZCode as far as I got. Currently you can explore the game's rooms through their natural passages (no jumps). The spells, objects, and creatures are placed. The "protected" lists work. You can learn spells and score points.
You type "CLOADM" to load the game. Then you type "EXEC" to run the game. Between these commands you can make patches to the code with BASIC POKE commands. Here are some useful cheats:
39->1A2F POKE 6703,57 Invulnerable to damage 21->78D POKE 1933,33 Lamp doesn't burn oil 21->11CD POKE 4557,33 ASK ORACLE any time 20->E0E POKE 3598,32 Move in any direction 12->751(3) POKE 1873,18 Skip creatures moving POKE 1874,18 POKE 1875,18 12->80B(3) POKE 2059,18 Skip creatures attacking POKE 2060,18 POKE 2061,18
In making the ZCode port I wrote a debug system that loads from virtual tape to memory at 7000. The system allows you to read and write any memory location from inside the game. The system hooks into the "EAT" and the "TIE" commands.
The command "EAT 0000" will print the value at memory location 0000 (hex). The command "TIE 0000:50" will set memory location 0000 to 50 (hex). The disassembly describes location 0000 as the "current room". This debug command thus allows you to set the room number to anything letting you teleport around the dungeon at will.
You load the debug system into memory first with the CLOADM BASIC command. Then you load Madness. Then you make 6 pokes to tie the system to the game's commands. As shown in the comments below:
; cload (instbas.cas) basic poker ; cloadm (inst.cas) loads debug to 7000 ; 1253: 7E 70 0D JMP $700D ; EAT 1234:56 POKE 4691, 126 112 13 ; 137D: 7E 70 00 JMP $7000 ; TIE 1234 POKE 4989, 126 112 0 ;doPeek 7000: 8E 05 C4 LDX #05C4 7003: 8D 16 BSR fromhexword 7005: E6 A4 LDB ,Y 7007: BD 17 15 JSR 1715 700A: 7E 10 17 JMP $1017 ;doPoke 700D: 8E 05 C4 LDX #05C4 ; Start of 4-digit address on screen 7010: 8D 09 BSR fromhexword ; Convert to word in Y 7012: A6 80 LDA ,X+ ; Skip the ':' on the screen 7014: 8D 11 BSR fromhexbyte ; Get the value 7016: A7 A4 STA ,Y ; Store the value to the address 7018: 7E 10 17 JMP $1017 ; Done with command ;fromHexWord 701B: 8D 0A BSR fromHexByte ; Get the left byte 701D: 97 54 STA >$54 ; Store left byte (used by tape-write) 701F: 8D 06 BSR fromHexByte ; Get the right byte 7021: 97 55 STA >$55 ; Store right byte 7023: 10 9E 54 LDY >$54 ; Read 16-bit value 7026: 39 RTS ; Done ;fromHexByte 7027: 8D 0B BSR fromHexDigit ; Get the left digit 7029: 48 ASLA ; Shfit ... 702A: 48 ASLA ; ... it ... 702B: 48 ASLA ; ... one ... 702C: 48 ASLA ; ... nibble 702D: 97 28 STA >$28 ; Store upper nibble (calculated score) 702F: 8D 03 BSR fromHexDigit ; Get the right digit 7031: 9A 28 ORA >$28 ; OR in the upper nibble 7033: 39 RTS ; Done ;fromHexDigit: 7034: A6 80 LDA ,X+ ; Get character from screen and bump 7036: 81 70 CMPA #$70 ; '0' 7038: 24 03 BCC isnumber ; It is a number 703A: 80 37 SUBA #$37 ; It is 'A'-'F' ... subtract 55 ('A' becomes 10) 703C: 39 RTS ; Done ;isnumber: 703D: 80 70 SUBA #$70 ; '0' becomes 0 703F: 39 RTS ; Done
Here is the virtual COCO tape that contains the debug system: inst.cas.